TAPAS: A Dataset for Task Assignment and Planning for Multi Agent Systems

Computational Robotics Lab, Department of Computer Science, ETH Zurich

TAPAS is a dataset containing asynchronous multi agent task and motion plans for various randomly sampled environments.


Obtaining real world data for robotics tasks is harder than for other modalities such as vision and text. The data that is currently available for robot learning is mostly set in static scenes, and deals with a single robot only. Dealing with multiple robots comes with additional difficulties compared to single robot settings: the motion planning for multiple agents needs to take into account the movement of the other robots, and task planning needs to consider to which robot a task is assigned to, in addition to when a task should be done.

In this work, we present TAPAS, a simulated dataset containing task and motion plans for multiple robots acting asynchronously in the same workspace and modifying the same environment. We consider prehensile manipulation in this dataset, and focus on various pick and place tasks. We demonstrate that training using this data for predicting makespan of a task sequence enables speeding up finding low makespan sequences by ranking sequences before computing the full motion plan.

TAPAS Dataset

The TAPAS dataset consists of 204k task and motion plans on 7'000 different randomized scenarios containing up to 4 robot arms. The goal in all the scenes is to move the objects to their corresponding goals using (possible collaborative) pick and place.


We currently have 4 base scenes (from left to right, illustrated above): random, with up to 4 arms with random base orientation and pose, husky, with two arms on a husky base, conveyor, a conveyor-like setting with 4 arms where objects have to be moved from the middle to the outside, and shelf a setting with a shelf and 2 arms.


We randomize the size of the objects and the start and the goal pose of the objects differently for each scene:

  • Random: We randomize the position uniformly on the table while making sure that they do not collide with each other in the home-pose. The orientation is sampled uniformly from 0 - 360 deg. The objects are similarly sampled uniformly on the table.
  • Husky: For the husky, we sample start positions and goal positions randomly.
  • Conveyor: For the conveyor setting, we are inspired by sorting of objects, leading to all start positions being in the middle, and all goal poses being on the outside tables.
  • Shelf: For the shelf scenario, we sample the start poses in the shelf, and the goal poses on the table.
In all settings, we ensure that the objects are in reach of at least one of the robots.


For each scene, we generate (multiple) possible task sequences for the robots, and generate full motion plans from the sequence using our multi agent task and motion planner (described in the paper). Each task and motion plan contains:

  • The trajectory for each robot, with each step containing the joint pose of the robot, the end effector pose, and the symbolic state.
  • The plan, with start and end times of an action for each robot.
  • The sequence from which the plan was generated.
  • A scene file, describing all the objects in the scene.
  • A metadata file, with the makespan of the plan, and the number of robots, and objects in the scene.


We use the dataset to accelerate search for a good task plan. We do this by learning to predict makespan of a candidate sequences using the dataset. We then use this policy to rank candidate sequences, and compute the full plans in order of the ranking.

We use a transformer-encoder as backbone for an MLP to predict the makespan for a given sequence and scene.


Below, we show the resulting makespan for a scenario over time for the policy using the predicted makespan (in green) and the baseline of a random search (blue).

Description of first image
Best found makespan at a given computation time for a scenario with 4 robots and 3 objects.
Description of second image
Best found makespan at a given computation time for a scenario with 3 robots and 4 objects.


  author    = {Zamora, Miguel and Hartmann, Valentin N. and Coros, Stelian},
  title     = {TAPAS: A Dataset for Task Assignment and Planning for Multi Agent Systems},
  year      = {2024},
  journal   = {Workshop on Data Generation for Robotics at Robotics, Science and Systems '24}